Open Journal Systems

Cover Image

Biological reactions to different dental implant surface treatments

Mona Y El-Gammal, Nihal Y El-Gammal, Omar N Fadhil, Ola M Maria

Abstract


The treatment of dental implants that increases surface area and roughness enhances bone-to-implant contact ratio; thus, facilitates the immediate loading of dental implants and fastens the osseointegration process. Structural and functional union of the implant with living bone is strongly influenced by the surface properties of the titanium (Ti) implants. As Ti and its alloys cannot directly bond with living bone, modification of implant surface has been introduced to enhance osseointegration. The biological effect of different methods of surface treatment has been studied in vivo and in vitro experiments. This review outlines the biological aspects and the use of certain surface modifications to control bone-to-implant biological response. In this review, we tried to cover a large number of reported studies related to implant surface treatments. Many of these treatments have been tried in the clinic and showed satisfactory results; therefore, specific recommendation regarding the best biocompatible implant surface treatment was hard to conclude


Keywords


Biological reaction; dental implant; laser sintered; Osseointegration; surface treatment

Full Text:

ABSTRACT PDF

References


Kasemo B, Gold J. Implant surfaces and interface processes. Adv Dent Res 1999;13:8-20.

Wilson CJ, Clegg RE, Leavesley DI, Pearcy MJ. Mediation of biomaterial-cell interactions by adsorbed proteins: A review. Tissue Eng 2005;11:1-18.

Junker R, Dimakis A, Thoneick M, Jansen JA. Effects of implant surface coatings and composition on bone integration: A systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res 2009;20 Suppl 4:185-206.

Buser D, Broggini N, Wieland M, Schenk RK, Denzer AJ, Cochran DL, et al. Enhanced bone apposition to a chemically modified SLA titanium surface. J Dent Res 2004;83:529-33.

Zhao G, Schwartz Z, Wieland M, Rupp F, Geis-Gerstorfer J, Cochran DL, et al. High surface energy enhances cell response to titanium substrate microstructure. J Biomed Mater Res A 2005;74:49-58.

Wennerberg A, Albrektsson T. Suggested guidelines for the topographic evaluation of implant surfaces. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2000;15:331-44.

Wennerberg A, Albrektsson T. Effects of titanium surface topography on bone integration: A systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res 2009;20 Suppl 4:172-84.

Novaes AB Jr, de Souza SL, de Barros RR, Pereira KK, Iezzi G, Piattelli A. Influence of implant surfaces on osseointegration. Braz Dent J 2010;21:471-81.

Soskolne WA, Cohen S, Sennerby L, Wennerberg A, Shapira L.The effect of titanium surface roughness on the adhesion of monocytes and their secretion of TNF-alpha and PGE2. Clin Oral Implants Res 2002;13:86-93.

Marco F, Milena F, Gianluca G, Vittoria O. Peri-implant osteogenesis in health and osteoporosis. Micron 2005;36:630-44.

Puleo DA, Nanci A. Understanding and controlling the boneimplant interface. Biomaterials 1999;20:2311-21.

Davies JE. Understanding peri-implant endosseous healing. J Dent Educ 2003;67:932-49.

Le Guehennec L, Soueidan A, Layrolle P, Amouriq Y. Surface treatments of titanium dental implants for rapid osseointegration. Dent Mater 2007;23:844-54.

Wennerberg A, Albrektsson T, Lausmaa J. Torque and histomorphometric evaluation of c.p. titanium screws blasted with 25- and 75-microns-sized particles of Al2O3. J Biomed Mater Res 1996;30:251-60.

Shalabi MM, Gortemaker A, Van’t Hof MA, Jansen JA, Creugers NH. Implant surface roughness and bone healing: A systematic review. J Dent Res 2006;85:496-500.

Junker R, Manders PJ, Wolke J, Borisov Y, Jansen JA. Bonesupportive behavior of microplasma-sprayed CaP-coated implants: Mechanical and histological outcome in the goat. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21:189-200.

Brett PM, Harle J, Salih V, Mihoc R, Olsen I, Jones FH, et al. Roughness response genes in osteoblasts. Bone 2004;35:124-33.

Bagno A, Di Bello C. Surface treatments and roughness properties of Ti-based biomaterials. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2004;15:935-49.

Wennerberg A, Albrektsson T. On implant surfaces: A review of current knowledge and opinions. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25:63-74.

Kunzler TP, Drobek T, Schuler M, Spencer ND. Systematic study of osteoblast and fi broblast response to roughness by means of surface-morphology gradients. Biomaterials 2007;28:2175-82.

Sennerby L, Ericson LE, Thomsen P, Lekholm U, Astrand P. Structure of the bone-titanium interface in retrieved clinical oral implants. Clin Oral Implants Res 1991;2:103-11.

Piattelli A, Scarano A, Piattelli M. Microscopic and histochemical evaluation of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft in association with implant placement: A case report. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1998;18:355-61.

Orsini G, Assenza B, Scarano A, Piattelli M, Piattelli A. Surface analysis of machined versus sandblasted and acid etched titanium implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2000;15:779-84.

Trisi P, Lazzara R, Rao W, Rebaudi A. Bone-implant contact and bone quality: Evaluation of expected and actual bone contact on machined and osseotite implant surfaces. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2002;22:535-45.

Cochran DL, Schenk RK, Lussi A, Higginbottom FL, Buser D. Bone response to unloaded and loaded titanium implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched surface: A histometric study in the canine mandible. J Biomed Mater Res 1998;40:1-11.

Cochran DL, Buser D, ten Bruggenkate CM, Weingart D, Taylor TM, Bernard JP, et al. Th e use of reduced healing times on ITI implants with a sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) surface: Early results from clinical trials on ITI SLA implants. Clin Oral Implants Res 2002;13:144-53.

Kokubu E, Hamilton DW, Inoue T, Brunette DM. Modulation of human gingival fibroblast adhesion, morphology, tyrosine phosphorylation, and ERK 1/2 localization on polished, grooved and SLA substratum topographies. J Biomed Mater Res A 2009;91:663-70.

Qu Z, Rausch-Fan X, Wieland M, Matejka M, Schedle A. The initial attachment and subsequent behavior regulation of osteoblasts by dental implant surface modification. J Biomed Mater Res A 2007;82:658-68.

Zhao G, Raines AL, Wieland M, Schwartz Z, Boyan BD. Requirement for both micron- and submicron scale structure for synergistic responses of osteoblasts to substrate surface energy and topography. Biomaterials 2007;28:2821-9.

Lai HC, Zhuang LF, Liu X, Wieland M, Zhang ZY, Zhang ZY. The influence of surface energy on early adherent events of osteoblast on titanium substrates. J Biomed Mater Res A 2010;93:289-96.

Cary LA, Guan JL. Focal adhesion kinase in integrin-mediated signaling. Front Biosci 1999;4:D102-13.

Schlaepfer DD, Hauck CR, Sieg DJ. Signaling through focal adhesion kinase. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1999;71:435-78.

Abbi S, Guan JL. Focal adhesion kinase: Protein interactions and cellular functions. Histol Histopathol 2002;17:1163-71.

Traini T, Mangano C, Sammons RL, Mangano F, Macchi A, Piattelli A. Direct laser metal sintering as a new approach to fabrication of an isoelastic functionally graded material for manufacture of porous titanium dental implants. Dent Mater 2008;24:1525-33.

Mangano C, Raspanti M, Traini T, Piattelli A, Sammons R. Stereo imaging and cytocompatibility of a model dental implant surface formed by direct laser fabrication. J Biomed Mater Res A 2009;88:823-31.

Gaggl A, Schultes G, Muller WD, Karcher H. Scanning electron microscopical analysis of laser-treated titanium implant surfaces – A comparative study. Biomaterials 2000;21:1067-73.

Frenkel SR, Simon J, Alexander H, Dennis M, Ricci JL. Osseointegration on metallic implant surfaces: Effects of microgeometry and growth factor treatment. J Biomed Mater Res 2002;63:706-13.

El-Gammal M, Ghoneem N, Tawfi k H, Madina MA, Maria OM. LASER sintered one-piece early-loaded dental implants for mandibular premolars replacement. J Oral Implantol 2015;41:56-62.

de Groot K, Wolke JG, Jansen JA. Calcium phosphate coatings for medical implants. Proc Inst Mech Eng H 1998;212:137-47.

Daculsi G, Laboux O, Malard O, Weiss P. Current state of the art of biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2003;14:195-200.

Morris HF, Ochi S, Spray JR, Olson JW. Periodontal-type measurements associated with hydroxyapatite-coated and non-HA-coated implants: Uncovering to 36 months. Ann Periodontol 2000;5:56-67.

Barrere F, van der Valk CM, Dalmeijer RA, Meijer G, van Blitterswijk CA, de Groot K, et al. Osteogenecity of octacalcium phosphate coatings applied on porous metal implants. J Biomed Mater Res A 2003;66:779-88.

Aldini NN, Fini M, Giavaresi G, Giardino R, Greggi T, Parisini P. Pedicular fi xation in the osteoporotic spine: A pilot in vivo study on long-term ovariectomized sheep. J Orthop Res 2002;20:1217-24.

Hara T, Hayashi K, Nakashima Y, Kanemaru T, Iwamoto Y. The effect of hydroxyapatite coating on the bonding of bone to titanium implants in the femora of ovariectomised rats. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1999;81:705-9.

Hayashi K, Uenoyama K, Mashima T, Sugioka Y. Remodelling of bone around hydroxyapatite and titanium in experimental osteoporosis. Biomaterials 1994;15:11-6.

Rocca M, Fini M, Giavaresi G, Aldini NN, Giardino R.

Osteointegration of hydroxyapatite-coated and uncoated titanium screws in long-term ovariectomized sheep. Biomaterials 2002;23:1017-23.

Alghamdi HS, Junker R, Bronkhorst EM, Jansen JA. Bone regeneration related to calcium phosphate-coated implants in osteoporotic animal models: A meta-analysis. Tissue Eng Part B Rev 2012;18:383-95.

Ducheyne P, Cuckler JM. Bioactive ceramic prosthetic coatings. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1992;102-14.

Ogiso M, Tabata T, Ichijo T, Borgese D. Examination of human bone surrounded by a dense hydroxyapatite dental implant aft er long-term use. J Long Term Eff Med Implants 1992;2:235-47.

Palmquist A, Omar OM, Esposito M, Lausmaa J, Thomsen P. Titanium oral implants: Surface characteristics, interface biology and clinical outcome. J R Soc Interface 2010;7 Suppl 5:S515-27.

Dinda GP, Shin J, Mazumder J. Pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite thin films on Ti-6Al-4V: Eff ect of heat treatment on structure and properties. Acta Biomater 2009;5:1821-30.

Sima F, Ristoscu C, Caiteanu D, Mihailescu CN, Stefan N, Mihailescu IN, et al. Biocompatibility and bioactivity enhancement of Ce stabilized ZrO(2) doped HA coatings by controlled porosity change of Al(2) O(3) substrates. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2011;96:218-24.

Saithna A. The influence of hydroxyapatite coating of external fixator pins on pin loosening and pin track infection: A systematic review. Injury 2010;41:128-32.

Duan W, Ning C, Tang T. Cytocompatibility and osteogenic activity of a novel calcium phosphate silicate bioceramic: Silicocarnotite. J Biomed Mater Res A 2013;101:1955-61.

Ni GX, Yao ZP, Huang GT, Liu WG, Lu WW. The effect of strontium incorporation in hydroxyapatite on osteoblasts in vitro. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2011;22:961-7.

Zhao SF, Jiang QH, Peel S, Wang XX, He FM. Effects of magnesium-substituted nanohydroxyapatite coating on implant osseointegration. Clin Oral Implants Res 2013;24 Suppl A100:34-41.

Boanini E, Torricelli P, Gazzano M, Della Bella E, Fini M, Bigi A. Combined effect of strontium and zoledronate on hydroxyapatite structure and bone cell responses. Biomaterials 2014;35:5619-26.

Chu C, Hu T, Yin LH, Pu YP, Dong YS, Lin PH, et al. Microstructural characteristics and biocompatibility of a Type-B carbonated hydroxyapatite coating deposited on NiTi shape memory alloy. Biomed Mater Eng 2009;19:401-8.

Han YJ, Loo SC, Lee J, Ma J. Investigation of the bioactivity and biocompatibility of diff erent glass interfaces with hydroxyapatite, fluorohydroxyapatite and 58S bioactive glass. Biofactors 2007;30:205-16.

Fielding GA, Roy M, Bandyopadhyay A, Bose S. Antibacterial and biological characteristics of silver containing and strontium doped plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings. Acta Biomater 2012;8:3144-52.

Shakesheff K, Cannizzaro S, Langer R. Creating biomimetic micro-environments with synthetic polymer-peptide hybrid molecules. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 1998;9:507-18.

Alsberg E, Anderson KW, Albeiruti A, Franceschi RT, Mooney DJ. Cell-interactive alginate hydrogels for bone tissue engineering. J Dent Res 2001;80:2025-9.

Lutolf MP, Weber FE, Schmoekel HG, Schense JC, Kohler T, Muller R, et al. Repair of bone defects using synthetic mimetics of collagenous extracellular matrices. Nat Biotechnol 2003;21:513-8.

Schliephake H, Scharnweber D, Dard M, Rossler S, Sewing A, Meyer J, et al. Effect of RGD peptide coating of titanium implants on periimplant bone formation in the alveolar crest. An experimental pilot study in dogs. Clin Oral Implants Res 2002;13:312-9.

Tosatti S, Schwartz Z, Campbell C, Cochran DL, VandeVondele S, Hubbell JA, et al. RGD-containing peptide GCRGYGRGDSPG reduces enhancement of osteoblast diff erentiation by poly(Llysine)- graft -poly(ethylene glycol)-coated titanium surfaces. J Biomed Mater Res A 2004;68:458-72.

Garcia AJ, Reyes CD. Bio-adhesive surfaces to promote osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. J Dent Res 2005;84:407-13.

Germanier Y, Tosatti S, Broggini N, Textor M, Buser D. Enhanced bone apposition around biofunctionalized sandblasted and acid-etched titanium implant surfaces. A histomorphometric study in miniature pigs. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006;17:251-7.

Wozney JM. The potential role of bone morphogenetic proteins in periodontal reconstruction. J Periodontol 1995;66:506-10.

Reddi AH. Cell biology and biochemistry of endochondral bone development. Coll Relat Res 1981;1:209-26.

Hanisch O, Tatakis DN, Rohrer MD, Wohrle PS, Wozney JM, Wikesjo UM. Bone formation and osseointegration stimulated by rhBMP-2 following subantral augmentation procedures in nonhuman primates. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1997;12:785-92.

Liu Y, Enggist L, Kuffer AF, Buser D, Hunziker EB. The influence of BMP-2 and its mode of delivery on the osteoconductivity of implant surfaces during the early phase of osseointegration. Biomaterials 2007;28:2677-86.

Wikesjo UM, Qahash M, Polimeni G, Susin C, Shanaman RH, Rohrer MD, et al. Alveolar ridge augmentation using implants coated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2: Histologic observations. J Clin Periodontol 2008;35:1001-10.

Lynch SE, Buser D, Hernandez RA, Weber HP, Stich H, Fox CH, et al. Effects of the platelet-derived growth factor/insulin-like growth factor-I combination on bone regeneration around titanium dental implants. Results of a pilot study in beagle dogs. J Periodontol 1991;62:710-6.

Becker W, Lynch SE, Lekholm U, Becker BE, Caffesse R, Donath K, et al. A comparison of ePTFE membranes alone or in combination with platelet-derived growth factors and insulin like growth factor-I or demineralized freeze-dried bone in promoting bone formation around immediate extraction socket implants. J Periodontol 1992;63:929-40.

Chiang CY, Chiou SH, Yang WE, Hsu ML, Yung MC, Tsai ML, et al. Formation of TiO(2) nano-network on titanium surface increases the human cell growth. Dent Mater 2009;25:1022-9.

Sul YT, Johansson CB, Kang Y, Jeon DG, Albrektsson T. Bone reactions to oxidized titanium implants with electrochemical anion sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid incorporation. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2002;4:78-87.

Sul YT, Johansson CB, Albrektsson T. Oxidized titanium screws coated with calcium ions and their performance in rabbit bone. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2002;17:625-34.

Burgos PM, Rasmusson L, Meirelles L, Sennerby L. Early bone tissue responses to turned and oxidized implants in the rabbit tibia. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2008;10:181-90.

Huang YH, Xiropaidis AV, Sorensen RG, Albandar JM, Hall J, Wikesjo UM. Bone formation at titanium porous oxide (TiUnite) oral implants in type IV bone. Clin Oral Implants Res 2005;16:105-11.

Ellingsen JE, Johansson CB, Wennerberg A, Holmen A. Improved retention and bone-to lmplant contact with fluoride modified titanium implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2004;19:659-66.

Isa ZM, Schneider GB, Zaharias R, Seabold D, Stanford CM. Effects of fluoride-modified titanium surfaces on osteoblast proliferation and gene expression. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006;21:203-11.

Josse S, Faucheux C, Soueidan A, Grimandi G, Massiot D, Alonso B, et al. Novel biomaterials for bisphosphonate delivery. Biomaterials 2005;26:2073-80.

Du Z, Chen J, Yan F, Xiao Y. Effects of Simvastatin on bone healing around titanium implants in osteoporotic rats. Clin Oral Implants Res 2009;20:145-50.

Ayukawa Y, Okamura A, Koyano K. Simvastatin promotes osteogenesis around titanium implants. Clin Oral Implants Res 2004;15:346-50.

Yang F, Zhao SF, Zhang F, He FM, Yang GL. Simvastatin-loaded porous implant surfaces stimulate preosteoblasts differentiation: An in vitro study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111:551-6.

Persson LG, Ericsson I, Berglundh T, Lindhe J. Osseintegration following treatment of peri-implantitis and replacement of implant components. An experimental study in the dog. J Clin Periodontol 2001;28:258-63.

Al-Nawas B, Groetz KA, Goetz H, Duschner H, Wagner W. Comparative histomorphometry and resonance frequency analysis of implants with moderately rough surfaces in a loaded animal model. Clin Oral Implants Res 2008;19:1-8.

Klokkevold PR, Johnson P, Dadgostari S, Caputo A, Davies JE, Nishimura RD. Early endosseous integration enhanced by dual acid etching of titanium: A torque removal study in the rabbit. Clin Oral Implants Res 2001;12:350-7.

Ong JL, Carnes DL, Bessho K. Evaluation of titanium plasmasprayed and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite implants in vivo. Biomaterials 2004;25:4601-6.

Kim HM, Miyaji F, Kokubo T, Nakamura T. Preparation of bioactive Ti and its alloys via simple chemical surface treatment. J Biomed Mater Res 1996;32:409-17.

Kokubo T, Kim HM, Kawashita M, Nakamura T. Bioactive metals: Preparation and properties. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2004;15:99-107.

Kim HM, Kokubo T, Fujibayashi S, Nishiguchi S, Nakamura T. Bioactive macroporous titanium surface layer on titanium substrate. J Biomed Mater Res 2000;52:553-7.

Nishiguchi S, Kato H, Neo M, Oka M, Kim HM, Kokubo T, et al. Alkali- and heat-treated porous titanium for orthopedic implants. J Biomed Mater Res 2001;54:198-208.

Fujibayashi S, Neo M, Kim HM, Kokubo T, Nakamura T. Osteoinduction of porous bioactive titanium metal. Biomaterials 2004;25:443-50.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
x
Message