Open Journal Systems

Cover Image

The impact of qat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing frequency on status of chronic periodontitis

Mohammed M. A. Abdullah Al-Abdaly, Ali Mosfer A Alqahtani

Abstract


Background: Chronic periodontitis occurs due to the reaction between bacterial components of dental plaque and the humoral and cellular host immune productions, such as cytokines and inflammatory mediators. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of qat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing frequency on the status of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with chronic periodontitis were selected for this study and they were divided on the basis of qat chewing habits frequency into three equal groups, i.e., non qat chewing group (control group), qat chewing once daily and qat chewing twice daily. Plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), and Clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded. Gingival biopsies were obtained from selected site for assessing histopathological changes. The data were collect and analyzed by ANOVA test. Results: There were significant differences in PLI, GI, and CAL between qat chewing patients groups compared to non qat chewing patients group (control group). Histopathological study showed increased inflammatory cells in qat chewing patients groups compared to non chewing patients group. Conclusion: There was increased severity of chronic periodontitis with increased frequency of qat chewing habit daily there is a significance differences in clinical and histopathological findings between the patients in Group II and Group III (study groups) compared to Group I (control group). Clinical Significance: The current study reveal that the severity of chronic periodontitis may be increased with increased qat chewing frequency due to its traumatic effect on periodontal tissues.

Keywords


Chronic periodontitis; clinical attachment loss; dental plaque; frequency; plaque index; qat chewing

Full Text:

ABSTRACT PDF

References


Novak JM. Carranza’s Clinical Periodontology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB. Saunders; 2006. p. 494-9.

Lamster IB, Ahlo JK. Analysis of gingival crevicular fluid as applied to the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007;1098:216-29.

Offenbacher S. Periodontal diseases: Pathogenesis. Ann Periodontol 1996;1:821-78.

Attström R. Presence of leukocytes in crevices of healthy and chronically inflamed gingivae. J Periodontal Res 1970;5:42-7.

Ageely HM. Prevalence of khat chewing in college and secondary (high) school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Harm Reduct J 2009;6:11.

Luqman W, Danowski TS. The use of khat (Catha edulis) in Yemen. Social and medical observations. Ann Intern Med 1976;85:246-9.

Ali AA. Qat habit in Yemen society: A causative factor for oral periodontal diseases. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2007;4:243-7.

Al-Sharabi A. Oral and Para-oral Lesions Caused by Takhzeen (Chewing) Al-qat. Doctoral Thesis. Al-Qattoum. Sudan: University Khartoum; 2002.

Mengel R, Eigenbrodt M, Schünemann T, Florès-de-Jacoby L. Periodontal status of a subject sample of Yemen. J Clin Periodontol 1996;23:437-43.

Silness J, Loe H. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. II. Correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condtion. Acta Odontol Scand 1964;22:121-35.

Loe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. I. Prevalence and severity. Acta Odontol Scand 1963;21:533-51.

Al-Kholani AI. Influence of khat chewing on periodontal tissues and oral hygiene status among Yemenis. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2010;7:1-6.

Hill CM, Gibson A. The oral and dental effects of q’at chewing. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1987;63:433-6.

Al-Bekairi AM, Abulaban FS, Qureshi S, Shah AH. The toxicity of Catha edulis (khat). A review. Fitoterapia 1991;62:291 300.

Zappa V, Reinking-Zappa M, Garf H, Espeland M. Cell populations and episodic periodontal attachment loss in humans. J Clin Periodontol 1991;18:508-15.

Kennedy JG, Teague J, Rokaw W, Cooney E. A medical evaluation of the use of qat in North Yemen. Soc Sci Med 1983;17:783-93.

Pejčić A, Obradović O, Kesić L, Kojović D. Smoking and periodontal disease review. Med Biol 2007;14:53-9.

Ali AA, Al-Sharabi AK, Aguirre JM. Histopathological changes in oral mucosa due to takhzeen al-qat: A study of 70 biopsies. J Oral Pathol Med 2006;35:81-5.

Ali AA. Histopathologic changes in oral mucosa of Yemenis addicted to water-pipe and cigarette smoking in addition to takhzeen al-qat. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007;103:e55-9.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.