Open Journal Systems

Cover Image

The comparison of enamel hardness between fluoride and theobromine application

Abdillah Imron Nasution, Cut Zawil

Abstract


Background: The application of fluoride as preventing caries still raises the pros and contras among scientists. Theobromine that is contained in cocoa is potentially element to preventing caries. Therefore, no data about differences hardness in the enamel surface using standard fluoride application and theobromine. Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the differences hardness between fluoride and theobromine application on enamel surfaces. Materials and Methods: This study compares values before and after intervention in enamel was conducted in June 2013 at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Syiah Kuala. Specimens were 42 premolars collected from extracted tooth for orthodontic treatment in Banda Aceh. Specimens divided into two groups: Theobromine 2% and fluoride 2%. The hardness measurements calculated by Shimadzu HMV2 Hardness Tester. Data analyzed by paired sample t-test Microsoft Excel Analyse-it version 3.20. Result: The hardness number in Fluorosis-before and after was 321.33 Vickers hardness number (VHN) versus 355.48 VHN. The hardness number in theobromin before and after was 319.99 VHN versus 341.14 VHN. The comparison test showed significant level (P < 0.05). Conclusion: application of fluoride and theobromine are equally able to increase the hardness of the enamel surface. Furthermore, the hardness of the enamel surface by fluor application is higher than the theobromine.


Keywords


Enamel Fluoride; Theobromine; Vickers Hardness Number

Full Text:

ABSTRACT PDF

References


Balakrishnan M, Simmonds RS, Tagg JR. Dental caries is a preventable infectious disease. Aust Dent J 2000;45:235-45.

Kidd EA, Fejerskov O. Dental Caries: The Disease and Its Clinical Management. Oxford: Blackwell Munksgaard; p. 50-69.

NIHRD: Indonesia: Sub-national health system performance assessment. Jakarta: National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD), Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia; 2005. WA 546 IND; 2005.

Chen H, Czajka-Jakubowska A, Spencer NJ, Mansfield JF, Robinson C, Clarkson BH. Effects of systemic fluoride and in vitro fluoride treatment on enamel crystals. J Dent Res 2006;85:1042-5.

Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Foods. United States: Department of Agriculture; 2005. Available from: http:// www.ars.usda.gov.1.

Harris NO, Godoy FG. Primary Preventive Dentistry. 6th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Health; 2004. p. 248-9.

Avery DR, McDonald RE. Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent. 7th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; p. 229-36.

Aoba T, Fejerskov O. Dental fluorosis: chemistry and biology. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2002;13:155-70.

Sadeghpour A. Fight tooth decay with chocolate, reveals study. Br Dent J 2007;202:648.

Nakamoto T. Theobromine Increases Crystal Size. Available from:http://www.iadr.confex.com/iadr/2002. SanDiego/techprogram/ abstract_12740.htm.

Kargul B, Özcan M, Peker S, Nakamoto T, Simmons WB, Falster AU. Evaluation of human enamel surfaces treated with theobromine: a pilot study. Oral Health Prev Dent 2012;10:275-82.

Gaspersic D. Enamel microhardness and histological features of composite enamel pearls of different size. J Oral Pathol Med 1995;24:153-8.

Reyes-Gasga J, Gutiérrez-Salzar MP. Enamel hardness and caries susceptibility in human teeth. Rev Latin Am Met Mat 2001;21:1-10.

Wongkhantee S, Patanapiradej V, Maneenut C, Tantbirojn D. Effect of acidic and drinks on surface hardness of enamel, dentine, and tooth-coloured filling materials. J Dent 2005;10:1-7.

Mathai M, Shozo T. Structures of biologcal minerals in dental research. J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol 2001;106:1035-44.

Elliott JC. Structure and Chemistry of the Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1994.

Gunawan HA. The effect of changes in apatit, level retention and intrusion fluorine on solubility. Email after Treatment S. insularis. Jakarta: Dissertation. Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia; 2006. p. 53-106.

Donadel K, Laranjeira MC, Goncalves VL, F’avere VT, Machado KD, et al. Structural, vibrational, and mechanical studies of hydroxyapatite produced by wet-chemical methods. arVix: 2004; physic: 0402002 v1.

Lide DR. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics; Ionization Potentials of Atoms and Atomic Ions. 84th ed., Sec. 10. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press; 2003.

Calderyn L, Stott MJ, Rubio A. Electronic and crystallographic structure of apatite. Phys Rev 2003;B67:1341-6.

Malisoff WM. Dictionary of Bio-Chemistry and Related Subjects. New York: Philosophical Library. p. 311, 530, 573.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
x
Message