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Complementary therapy for periodontal diseases: Antimicrobials and antioxidants

Ridhima Seth

Abstract


Background: It is a well-known fact that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontal diseases. Antioxidants are the molecules that inhibit oxidation reaction and thereby terminate the chain reaction caused by free radicals, hence preventing cell damage. There are multiple sources of antioxidants which include cereals, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, oils, and beverages such as tea, coffee, wine, and fruit juices. The periodontal tissues require an optimum level of antioxidants to prevent as well as to reduce tissue damage caused by ROS generated by pathogenic bacteria in dental plaque. Recent studies have started focussing on the use of antioxidants in the treatment of periodontal diseases as well as to maintain gingival health. Aim: Earlier studies that investigated the effects of antioxidants on periodontal diseases have demonstrated that antioxidants have anti-inflammatory properties. Although numerous studies demonstrated the relationship between antioxidants and periodontal diseases, the number of studies in humans is limited. The present review discusses the importance of antioxidants and antimicrobials in maintaining periodontal health and hence, their role as a complementary therapy in periodontal diseases. Conclusion: Dietary antioxidants play a key role in the maintenance of oral health and have the potential to influence periodontal disease management, which positively affects clinical outcomes. Thus, obtaining enough antioxidants through our diet to promote healthier tissues is essential to reduce the unwanted effects of free radicals. This explains the indispensable role of dietary antioxidants in periodontal health. Clinical Significance: The application of antioxidants and antimicrobials in periodontal therapies has opened a new window for the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases. There is supporting evidence from multiple studies that an increased intake of antioxidants in the daily diet reduces the risk of several chronic diseases. Oxidative stress is an essential factor in periodontitis and studying the antioxidant defense mechanisms helps in better understanding of underlying tissue damage mechanisms and hence, novel therapeutic interventions. Therefore, the daily intake of natural antioxidants is recommended for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.

Keywords


Antimicrobials; antioxidants; gingival diseases; periodontitis; reactive species

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References


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