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Risk factors associated with periodontal diseases and their clinical considerations

Abhishek Mehta


Periodontal diseases are a group of chronic infections caused by pathogenic bacteria colonizing the periodontium. Initiation and progression of periodontal infections are affected by local and systemic conditions. The local factors include dental plaque and plaque retentive areas such as dental calculus and defective restorations. Systemic risk factors include poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and tobacco smoking. Systemic conditions associated with immunodefi ciency state such as neutropenia, AIDS/HIV infections are also important risk factors. Recent studies have revealed several potentially important periodontal risk indicators. These include stress and coping behaviors and osteopenia associated with estrogen deficiency. There are also demographic factors associated with periodontal disease including gender, and hereditary factors.


Diabetes mellitus; periodontitis; risk factors; smoking; systemic factors

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