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Irrigants in endodontic treatment

Sajedeh Ghorbanzadeh, Sara Arab Loodaricheh, Sara Samizade, Saeede Zadsirjan

Abstract


The aim of root canal treatment is to remove virulence factors from this system. Cleaning and shaping of the root canal are at the outmost importance in endodontic treatment. Canal irrigation during the process of cleaning and shaping can lead to the elimination of microorganism, which are not removable through physical methods. Moreover, during the preparation of root canal, manually and by rotary instruments, the smear layer is created that must be eliminated by irrigants. In the present review article, irrigants were investigated in terms of chemical and biological features and their effective and safe ways of usage, along with some information that have been proposed on recent developments of root canal solutions. Furthermore, this topic has been studied regarding its effect on microorganisms and smear layer. In the present article, a review has been conducted through libraries, PubMed, ISI Web of science, Scopus websites, and Google using keywords such as endodontic treatment, intracanal irrigant, anti-bacterial, chlorhexidine, smear layer, and sodium hypochlorite. Diff erent materials have been introduced as root canal irrigants. Although sodium hypochlorite is the most common material used in the endodontic treatment against root canal microorganism, it has certain disadvantages and limitations and could not entirely remove the smear layer. Therefore, there is no irrigant that is capable of providing all the features of an appropriate irrigant individually. To remove the smear layer, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid is required as the final rinse. High-density sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is more effective than 1 and 2% solutions. In order to eliminate the microorganisms of the root canal and the smear layer, it is suggested to use two or more detergents with a proper frequency. Using chlorhexidine as the final detergent creates a lasting impact.


Keywords


Anti-bacterial materials; chlorhexidine; intracanal irrigant; root canal treatment; smear layer; sodium hypochlorite

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References


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